Creuades

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Les creuades foren una série de campanyes militars de caràcter religiós, organisades per coalicions d'estats europeus a fi de lliberar Terra Santa (Jerusalem) dels musulmans, i sostingudes pels denominats 'estats cristians' de la regió. Tingueren lloc durant els sigles XI i XIII, especialment entre els anys 1095 i 1276.

Si be la majoria de creuades foren impulsades per conquerir les terres de Palestina que estaven en mans dels musulmans, també s'utilisa el terme per a designar operacions lliurades contra els eslaus, judeus, russos, cristians ortodoxos, mongols, hussites i càtars, com fon el cas de la Creuada albigesa, i també contra els estats que s'oponien a la disciplina papal,[1] com fon el cas de la Creuada contra la Corona d'Aragó.

Bibliografia[editar]

General
  • Alphandery, P.: La Chretiente et l'idee de croisade. Ed. A Dupont. 2 vols. París: Albin Miehel, 1954.
  • Archer, T. A. i Kingsford, C.L.: The Crusades. Londres, 1894.
  • Armstrong, Karen: Holy War: The Crusades and their Impact on Today's World. Londres: Macmillan, 1988.
  • Barker, Sir E.: The Crusades. Londres: Oxford University Press, 1939.
  • Bartlett, Wayne: God Wills It!: An Illustrated History of the Crusades. Stroud: Sutton, 1999
  • Belloc, Hillaire: The Crusades: The World's Debate. Milwaukee: Bruce, 1937.
  • Billings, Malcolm: The Crusades: Five Centuries of Holy Wars. Nova York: Sterling Publications, 1996.
  • Brehier, L.: L'Eglise et l'orient au moyen age: Les Croisades. 5a. edició. París: J. Gabalda et fils, 1928.
  • Campbell, G.A.: The Crusades. Londres: Duckworth, 1935.
  • Cox, G.W.: The Crusades. Nova York: Scribners, 1926.
  • Goss, Vladimir P.: The Meeting of two worlds: cultural exchange between East and West during the period of the Crusades. Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1986.
  • Grousset, R.: Histoire des Croisades et du Royaume Franc de Jerusalem. 3 vols. París: Plon, 1934-1936.
  • Hillenbrand, Carole: The Crusades : Islamic Perspectives. Nova York : Routledge, 2000.
  • Holt, P. M.: The Ages of the Crusades: the Near East from the eleventh century to 1517. Londres & Nova York, 1986.
  • Holt, P.M.: The Eastern Mediterranean Lands in the Period of the Crusades. Warminster, Anglaterra, 1977.
  • Jones, Terry i Alan Ereira: Crusades. Nova York: Facts on File, 1995.
  • Lamb, Harold: The Crusades: The Flame of Islam. Garden City, Nova York: Doubleday, 1931.
  • Lamb, Harold: The Crusades: Iron Men and Saints. Garden City, Nova York: Doubleday, 1930.
  • Madden Thomas: A Concise History of the Crusades. Totowa, Nova Jersey: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.
  • Murray, Alan (ed.): From Clermont to Jerusalem: The Crusaders and Crusade Society (1095-1453). International Medieval Research, 3. Turnhout, Bèlgica: Brepols, 1998.
  • Richard, Jean: The Crusades, C. 1071-C. 1291. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan: The Crusades: A Short History. New Haven & Londres: Yale University Press, 1987.
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan (ed.): The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. Nova York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan: What Were the Crusades?. 2a. ed., Londres et al., 1992.
  • Runciman, Steven: A History of the Crusades, 3 vols., Cambridge, 1951-1954.
  • Setton, Kenneth Meyer (ed.): A History of the Crusades, 6 vols, Madison, Wisconsin, 1969-1989.
  • Tyerman, Christopher: God's War: A New History of the Crusades. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006.
  • Tyreman, Christopher: Fighting for Christendom: Holy War and the Crusades. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Primera Creuada
  • Cahen, C.: "An Introduction to the First Crusade." Past and Present 6 (1954): 6-30.
  • Cate, James Lea: "The Crusade of 1101." In A History of the Crusades. Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Editat per Marshall W. Baldwin. 343-67. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-1989.
  • Charanis, Peter: "Byzantium. the West and the Origin of the First Crusade." Byzantion 19 (1949).
  • Cowdrey, H. E. J.: "Pope Urban II's Preaching of the First Crusade." History 55 (1970): 177-88.
  • Edgington, Susan B.: The First Crusade. Londres: Historical Association, 1996.
  • Flori, Jean: La Première Croisade: L'Occident chrétien contre l'Islam. París: Editions Complexe, 1992.
  • France, John: Victory in the East: a Military History of the First Crusade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  • Heers, Jacques: "Le implicaziono economiche della prima crociata", in Piacenza e la prima crociata, p. 103-24.
  • Kedar, Benjamin Z.: "Crusades Historians and the Massacres of 1096." Jewish History, 12:2 (1998), 11-31.
  • Kosto, A.J.: "Hostages during the First Century of the Crusades." Medieval Encounters v.9:1 (2003).
  • Phillips, Jonathan (ed.): The First Crusade: Origins and Impact. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997.
  • Runciman, Steven: The First Crusade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
Segona Creuada
  • Berry, Virginia G.: "The Second Crusade." A A History of the Crusades. Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Editat per Marshall W. Baldwin. 463-512. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-1989.
  • Constable, Giles: "The Second Crusade as Seen by Contemporaries." Traditio 9 (1953): 213-79.
  • Gervers, Michael (ed.): The Second Crusade and the Cistercians, Nova York: St. Martins Press, 1992.
  • Jensen, Kurt Willads: "Denmark and the Second Crusade: The Formation of a Crusader State." eds. Jonathan Philips i Martin Hoch. The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001.
  • Philips, Jonathan, i Martin Hoch (eds.): The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001.
Quinta Creuada
  • Donovan, Joseph Patrick: Pelagius and the Fifth Crusade. Filadèlfia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1950.
  • Powell, James M.: Anatomy of a Crusade, 1213-1221. Filadèlfia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986.
  • Van Cleve, Thomas C.: "The Fifth Crusade." In A History of the Crusades. Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311, editat per R. L. Wolff i Harry W. Hazard 377-428. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-1989.
Sexta Creuada
  • Abulafia, David: Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor. Londres: Allen Lane, 1988.
  • Van Cleve, Thomas C.: "The Crusade of Frederick II." In A History of the Crusades. Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Editat per R. L. Wolff i Harry W. Hazard. 429-63. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-1989. 1

Referències[editar]

  1. Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Oxford History of the Crusades New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-285364-3.